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Geological Phenomena

There are numerous types of geological phenomena that can be found both on Earth and other planets. These events or formations are generally related to the following: rocks or rock formations, water features such as waterfalls and lakes, plate activity or phenomena resulting from plate activity including earthquakes and volcanoes, and events related to erosion.

There are several definitions that more precisely classify an event or formation as a geological phenomena. Wikipedia defines geological phenomena as phenomena that can be explained by or expand knowledge on the science of geology. Another definition states that geological phenomena are any naturally occurring phenomena that involve the structure, content, consistency or composition or the Earth.


Occurs when there is friction between two of the major or minor tectonic plates of the Earth's crust. This friction is often caused by the tectonic plates rising above or sliding underneath each other, and can result in massive amounts of damage and also fatalities.



Underground springs of water that eject water and steam from the Earth's surface.


Massive sheets of thick ice that move extremely slowly over time.

Hot Spring

Pools of naturally and geologically heated water that have been used for relaxational and medicinal purposes.


These geological events sometimes result in extensive damage and occur when rock, mud or dirt become loosened at a higher elevation and fall or slide to a lower elevation.



Rising high above the Earth, mountains form or formed where tectonic plates meet or once met. They almost always occur in groups or ranges, and the tallest of them can have elevations over 6 miles above the Earth.


These features are typically present along fault lines, where pressure that has built up in Earth's mantle can be more easily released. As the pressure releases, it brings hot magma from the mantle to the Earth's surface, which cools and forms volcanic structures.


There are several different ways that waterfalls can form, and several different types of waterfalls. Learn about some of the most magnificent geological phenomena here.